Pictorial Means / Design Means

Pictorial Means / Design Means


An artist always needs means in some form to create a work of art. These means include the obvious ones such as the material (paper, canvas, paint) and the tool (pencil, brush, pen), as well as elements of form and color (lines, areas, colors and their combinations).

The Dot

The dot is probably the smallest element in art. Alone, it is nothing more than a dot, but if you add other dots or other elements, this dot is given context and meaning. In pointillism, a style of painting with paint applied in dots, the dot is the dominant creative element.

The Line

The line is nothing more than a dot that is continued. It does not have to be a straight line, the line can also be curved or even angular.

The Surface

The surface is a shaped or shifted line where an outline or boundary is visible. A surface can form simple shapes such as a circle, triangle, or rectangle. However, complex, amorphous shapes are also possible.

Ein Künstler benötigt zum Gestalten eines Kunstwerks stets in irgendeiner Form Mittel. Zu diesen Mitteln zählen die offensichtlichen wie das Material (Papier, Leinwand, Farbe) und das Werkzeug (Bleistift, Pinsel, Feder), als auch Elemente der Form- und Farbgebung (Linien, Flächen, Farben und deren Kombinationen).

Linear style and painterly style

The Swiss art historian Heinrich Wölfflin introduced in his time a distinction between the two terms linear style and painterly style. In the linear style, the contours are clearly recognizable, while in the painterly style they are unstressed to dissolved.

Albrecht Dürer: Wing of a Roller

Albrecht Dürer: Wing of a Roller (linear style)

Rembrandt: Self-portrait with two circles

Rembrandt: Self-portrait with two circles (painterly style)

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